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探秘 | 现实中自动驾驶汽车上路情况

  Where to find self-driving cars on the road right now

  Autonomous cars seem futuristic, but they’re already on the streets.

  自动驾驶汽车看起来倍具未来感,但其实它们已经上路了。

  数据观/黄玉叶(编译)

  Headlines abound about self-driving cars, but there’s a big difference between reading about them and seeing one, replete with all its sensors, on the street. Or, for that matter, taking a ride in one. Uber is back on the road with its self-driving cars, and plenty of other outfits are making progress and running their cars in states like California, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. Here’s an evolving round-up of what’s going on with self-driving cars on public roads.

  关于自动驾驶汽车的新闻标题比比皆是,阅读这样的报道和在街上实际看到一辆搭载传感器的自动驾驶汽车亦或身临其境却是大相径庭的。优步凭借其自动驾驶汽车重新回归,一众公司也在这方面相继取得进展,并在加州、密歇根州和宾夕法尼亚州等运营自己的品牌汽车。以下我们就来看看一波自动驾驶汽车的上路情况。

  Aptiv

  Las Vegas, Boston, Pittsburgh, Singapore

  拉斯维加斯,波士顿,匹兹堡,新加坡

现实中自动驾驶汽车上路情况

  The name “Aptiv” might not ring a bell, but if you visit Las Vegas, you could ride in one of their autonomous vehicles after hailing a Lyft. They first began offering rides in their cars during the Consumer Electronics Show in January, 2018, and the program has grown from there. The company currently has 30 autonomous cars on the roads in Sin City; they cruise around 20 hours a day, seven days a week. Aptiv says they’ve completed more than 30,000 Lyft trips and hauled around more than 50,000 passengers, and while the vehicles are autonomous, a real human sits behind the wheel and in the passenger seat, too. Aptiv—which purchased self-driving car company nuTonomy in 2017—also tests their cars in Boston, Pittsburgh, and Singapore.

  “Aptiv”这个名字可能不见经传,但是如果你去趟拉斯维加斯,用Lyft打个车,你就有机会乘坐他们的自动驾驶汽车。Lyft在2018年1月的CES国际消费类电子产品展览会(Consumer Electronics Show)上首次开启了Lyft“全自动驾驶”打车服务,至此,该项目澳门金沙线上娱乐平台延续至今。该公司目前在“罪恶之城”拉斯维加斯拥有30辆自动驾驶汽车,他们一周7天每天航行20小时左右。Apti方面表示,他们已经完成了3万多趟Lyft行程,载送了超过5万名乘客。虽然这些车辆是自动驾驶的,但方向盘和乘客座位上也各坐着真人。据悉,Aptiv在2017年收购了自动驾驶汽车公司nuTonomy——该公司也在波士顿、匹兹堡和新加坡测试他们的汽车。

  Aurora

  Palo Alto, San Francisco, and Pittsburgh

  帕洛阿尔托,旧金山和匹兹堡

现实中自动驾驶汽车上路情况

  Like Aptiv, Aurora may not be a familiar name, but Amazon, an investor in the company, obviously is. Aurora announced on February 7 that it had scored more than $530 million in financing from the likes of Sequoia and Amazon; the company is developing its own self-driving technology while working with Volkswagen, Hyundai, and Byton. Their self-driving VW e-Golfs and Lincoln MKZs are on the streets of Palo Alto, San Francisco, and Pittsburgh—with two vehicle operators on board, too.

  和Aptiv一样,Aurora可能不是一个熟悉的名字,但该公司的投资者亚马逊(Amazon)显然家喻户晓。Aurora于2月7日宣布,已从红杉(Sequoia)和亚马逊(Amazon)等公司获得逾5.3亿美元融资,该公司正在开发自己的自动驾驶技术,与此同时他们还和大众、现代以及Byton合作。他们的自动驾驶汽车大众e-Golfs系列和林肯MKZ系列已在帕洛阿尔托、旧金山和匹兹堡的街道上行驶,车上还有两名汽车驾驶员。

  Cruise

  San Francisco; Scottsdale, Arizona and Orion, Michigan

  旧金山,斯科茨代尔,亚历桑那州,密歇根州

现实中自动驾驶汽车上路情况

  General Motors has owned autonomous car company Cruise since 2016, and their gen-three autonomous Chevy Bolts are on the roads of San Francisco, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Orion, Michigan. (The Bolt is Chevy’s all-electric vehicle, and not to be confused with their hybrid Volt, which they recently put out to the asphalt pasture.) These self-driving Bolts have safety drivers behind the wheel, and in San Francisco, they’re part of an internal ride-sharing program, called Cruise Anywhere, for over a 1,000 employees who can use hail one to catch a ride. Cruise and General Motors have also made a splash by revealing their generation-four concept vehicle, a Bolt that has no steering wheel or pedals.

  通用汽车公司自2016年起拥有了自动驾驶汽车公司Cruise,其自制的三代雪佛兰Bolts已经行驶在旧金山、斯科茨代尔、亚历桑那州、密歇根州的路上。(Bolt是雪佛兰的全电动汽车,切勿与他们最近向柏油牧场推出的混合动力汽车混淆。)这些自动驾驶的Bolts车都有安全驾驶员坐在方向盘后,这是旧金山内部共享乘车计划Cruise Anywhere的一部分,这个项目为超过1,000名的员工提供服务,他们可以用来打车。Cruise和通用汽车公司也通过发布他们没有方向盘或脚踏板的四代概念车Bolt而名声大噪。

  Drive.ai

  Frisco and Arlington, Texas

  旧金山和阿林顿,德克萨斯州

 A self-driving van in Texas.德州路上的一辆自动驾驶厢车

  A self-driving van in Texas.德州路上的一辆自动驾驶厢车

  Like Aptiv and Aurora, the name Drive.ai may not be familiar, but they’re already offering a self-driving service in two places in Texas: Frisco and Arlington. Both of those towns are in the Dallas, Fort Worth area, and both services use self-driving vans and safety drivers to shuttle people around in a specific, geofenced region. The service in Arlington is the more public of the two—so if you’re visiting Arlington, you could summon a self-driving van, for free, via an app or through a kiosk. The vans even have signs on them to let pedestrians know what they’re doing.

  就像Aptiv和Aurora一样,Drive.ai的名字可能不为公众所知,但他们已经在德克萨斯州的两个地方提供自动驾驶服务:旧金山和阿灵顿。这两个城镇都位于达拉斯地区,两个地方的服务都是使用自动驾驶的厢车配备安全司机在特定地理位置区域内接送乘客。阿灵顿的这项服务更较为公开化,因此,如果你碰巧正在造访阿灵顿,就可以通过应用程序或自助服务站免费叫到一辆自动驾驶厢车,车身上甚至有标志,能让路人知道你在乘坐自动驾驶汽车。

  Ford

  Miami, Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C., and Dearborn, Michigan

  迈阿密,匹兹堡,华盛顿,密歇根

A Ford Fusion Hybrid.福特融合混合动力车

  A Ford Fusion Hybrid.福特融合混合动力车

  Ford is working with a company called Argo AI for its self-driving cars. The company has autonomous vehicles on the road in Miami, Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C. and Dearborn, Michigan. They're also licensed to start testing this year in Palo Alto, California. Those cars also have two safety personnel on board—one behind the wheel, and one in the passenger seat.

  福特正在与一家名为Argo AI的公司合作研发自动驾驶汽车。该公司在迈阿密、匹兹堡、华盛顿特区和密歇根州迪尔伯恩都有自动驾驶汽车。他们还获得了今年在加州帕洛阿尔托开始测试的许可。这些车上都配备了两名安全员,一名在驾驶位,另一名在乘客位上。

  The automaker has also been working with Dominos, Postmates, and Walmart to explore the intersection of self-driving cars and business deliveries; interestingly, those cars are designed to look like self-driving cars, but actually are just regular vehicles with humans driving them. These fake self-driving tests are so the company can learn about logistics and human-car interactions at the pick-up and drop-off points.

  这家汽车制造商还与Dominos、Postmates和沃尔玛(Walmart)合作,探索自动驾驶汽车和商业快递的交叉领域。有趣的是,这些汽车的设计看起来像是自动驾驶汽车,但实际上只是普通的司机驾驶汽车。这些假的自动驾驶测试只是为了让该公司能够在接送点了解物流和人车互动的情况。

  Finally, it is eying a 2021 launch of an autonomous commercial service that would carry people and goods in multiple cities, including Miami and Washington, D.C.

  最后,该公司预计在2021年将推出一项自动驾驶商业服务,在迈阿密和华盛顿特区等多个城市运送载人员和货物。

  Nuro

  Scottsdale, Arizona

  亚利桑那州,斯科茨代尔

This unmanned vehicle delivers groceries.正在运送食杂货品的无人驾驶汽车

This unmanned vehicle delivers groceries.正在运送食杂货品的无人驾驶汽车

  Not all self-driving cars exist to transport humans. An 8-foot-long vehicle from Nuro called the R1 is designed to carry only groceries, but unlike a delivery robot that cruises on sidewalks, this car goes on the roads. In December, they kicked off a pilot program in which the the unmanned electric vehicle can deliver groceries from a Fry's Food Stores in Scottsdale to humans in the area.

  并非所有的自动驾驶汽车都是用来载人的。这款来自Nuro,名为R1,车长8英尺的自动驾驶汽车其设计初衷就是运送杂货,但与人行道上巡航的送货机器人不同,这款汽车可以上路。去年12月,Nuro启动了一个试点项目,在这个项目中,无人驾驶的电动汽车可以把斯科茨代尔地区一家名为Fry's食品店的货物运送到该片区人们的手上。

  Uber

  Pittsburgh in autonomous mode; San Francisco and Toronto in manual mode

  自动模式下匹兹堡;手动模式下旧金山和多伦多

Volvos equipped with self-driving equipment from Uber. 配备优步自动驾驶设备的沃尔沃车系

Volvos equipped with self-driving equipment from Uber. 配备优步自动驾驶设备的沃尔沃车系

  The worst tragedy by far in the world of self-driving cars occurred on March 18, 2018, when an autonomous Uber killed a pedestrian in Tempe, Arizona. While they yanked their vehicles off the road after that disaster, the ride-sharing company’s Advanced Technologies Group returned in December of last year with a much smaller focus: their cars cruise in self-driving mode on a short route in Pittsburgh. Uber says those vehicles only run on weekdays, during the day, and not in bad weather—but that they could expand that domain as time goes on. One crucial change is that the automatic braking system that comes with the Volvos they are using will now be engaged while the vehicle is in autonomous mode—previously that wasn’t the case, according to an NTSB report on the March accident. Finally, Uber is also running their autonomous cars in Toronto and San Francisco in manual mode, meaning a human is driving. That exercise helps the company gather data for mapping and running simulations. Two humans, or "mission specialists," will be in the cars at all times, according to Uber.

  2018年3月18日,无人驾驶汽车领域发生了迄今为止最惨烈的悲剧,一辆无人驾驶的Uber车在亚利桑那州坦佩撞死了一名行人。意外发生后,Uber主动把他们的汽车从公路上下架,但这家拼车公司的先进技术集团在去年12月卷土重来,并专注于新的局限领域:他们的汽车在匹兹堡的一条短途路线上,以自动驾驶模式巡航。Uber表示,这些车辆只在天气好的工作日和白天运行——但随着时间的推移,他们注定拓展这一领域。据美国国家运输安全委员会(NTSB) 3月份发布的事故报告,其中一个关键的变化是,他们正在使用的沃尔沃的自动刹车系统将在车辆处于自动模式时自动启动,而此前情况并非如此。最后,Uber还在多伦多和旧金山以手动模式运行他们的自动驾驶汽车,这意味着其实有人在驾驶。这种做法有助于该公司收集数据,以进行绘图和行驶模拟。根据Uber的说法,车内将始终有两名人员,即“任务专管员”。

  Waymo

  Chandler, Mesa, Tempe, and Gilbert, Arizona

  钱德勒,梅萨,坦佩和吉尔伯特,亚利桑那州

A self-driving shuttle in Ohio.俄亥俄州的自动驾驶航汽车Smart Columbus

A self-driving shuttle in Ohio.俄亥俄州的自动驾驶航汽车Smart Columbus

  Waymo began as an internal self-driving project from Google, and is now an Alphabet-owned company in its own right. They recently launched an autonomous taxi service in four cities in the Phoenix, Arizona area, which is only open to hundreds of people, according to the company; those people can use an app to summon a self-driving Chrysler Pacifica (which has two Waymo-employed humans up front) and then go somewhere in it, like Uber or Lyft.

  Waymo最初是谷歌的一个内部自动驾驶项目,现在已经是一家拥有alphabet所有权的公司。据该公司称,他们最近在亚利桑那州凤凰城的四个城市推出了一项自动驾驶出租车服务,该服务只对数百人进行开放。这些人可以使用一款应用打到一辆自动驾驶汽车Chrysler Pacifica(该车会配备两名waymo雇员在前排座位),然后你可以乘坐它去某个地方,就像Uber或Lyft打车那样。

  Waymo One is an evolution of testing the company had already been doing in the Phoenix area, called the Waymo early rider program. A leader in the autonomous car space, Waymo has racked up more than 10 million miles of running autonomous cars on public roads, and billions of simulated miles, too.

  Waymo One是该公司在凤凰城(Phoenix)地区已经开展的一项测试(Waymo early rider program)的升级版。作为自动驾驶汽车领域的领头羊,Waymo已经积累了超过1000万英里的自动驾驶实际公路里程,以及数十亿英里的模拟里程。

  Zoox

  San Francisco

  旧金山

Zoox prototypes don't yet venture on public roads. Zoox的原型还没有在公路上试水

Zoox prototypes don't yet venture on public roads. Zoox的原型还没有在公路上试水

  Autonomous vehicle company Zoox is working on creating an innovative kind of car—an electric vehicle designed specifically to be self-driving that can cruise either forwards or backwards (both the front and rear wheels can turn; see an image of prototypes above). But today, in San Francisco, Zoox is testing approximately 24 autonomous Toyota Prius and Highlander vehicles equipped with sensors and Zoox self-driving software. The cars have a safety driver behind the wheel, as well as a software operator onboard, and while they have a permit from the California Public Utilities Commission to pick up passengers, they’re not yet doing so. Eventually—like other companies in this space— their goal is to create an autonomous ride-hailing service in a city, although Zoox intends to use their own custom-made bidirectional vehicles for the fleet.

  自动驾驶汽车公司Zoox正致力于创造一种创新型汽车——一款专为自动驾驶设计的电动汽车,既可以向前行驶也可以向后行驶(前轮和后轮都可以转动,详情请参考上面的原型图)。但是目前在旧金山,Zoox正在测试大约24辆装有传感器和Zoox自动驾驶软件的丰田 Prius车和高地车。这些车的方向盘后有一名安全驾驶员,车上还有一名软件操作员。虽然他们获得了加州公共事业委员会(California Public Utilities Commission)的许可,可以搭载乘客,但他们目前还没有这么做。最终,就像这个领域的其他公司一样,他们的目标是在一个城市创建自主的叫车服务,尽管Zoox曾经打算让车队定制并使用他们自己的双向车。

  Finally, others continue to work in the autonomous car industry, from the little to big. A self-driving shuttle began operations on December 10 in Columbus, Ohio, for example. And of course, Tesla produces a semi-autonomous feature for its vehicles, called Autopilot, to assist drivers and even suggest making a lane change.

  最终,其他人将继续在自动驾驶汽车行业中深耕,蔚为大观。例如,一架自动驾驶班车于12月10日已经在俄亥俄州哥伦布市开始运行。当然,特斯拉也为其汽车开发了一种半自动驾驶的功能,称为Autopilot,以协助司机驾驶,甚至提供变道建议。

  注:《现实中自动驾驶汽车上路情况》来源于Popular Science(点击查看原文)。数据观黄玉叶/编译,转载请注明译者和来源。

责任编辑:李兰松

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